Lake Victoria is located in east central Africa along the equator. The only outflow for Lake Victoria is at Jinja, Uganda, where it forms the Victoria Nile.  These drying cycles are probably related to past ice ages, which were times when precipitation declined globally. The abundance of aquatic life is not the only dependent of the lake: more than thirty million people in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda rely on the lake for its natural resources. Lake Victoria is shared among three countries in Africa. In 1990–1991, oxygen concentrations in the mixed layer were higher than in 1960–1961, with nearly continuous oxygen supersaturation in surface waters. It is crossed by the equator. The lake rests between three countries namely, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.  As a result of predation by the introduced Nile perch, eutrophication and other changes to the ecosystem, it is estimated that at least 200 species (about 40 percent) of Lake Victoria haplochromines have become extinct, including more than 100 undescribed species. In this way, the Nile perch has degraded the diverse and thriving ecosystem that was once Lake Victoria. Lake Victoria, also called Victoria Nyanza, largest lake in Africa and chief reservoir of the Nile, lying mainly in Tanzania and Uganda but bordering on Kenya. In addition, it's the largest tropical lake in the world, and the planet's second largest freshwater lake. Freshwater biodiversity in the Lake Victoria Basin: Guidance for species conservation, site protection.  The deepest part of the lake is offset to the east of the lake near Kenya and the lake is generally shallower in the west along the Ugandan shoreline and the south along the Tanzanian shoreline.  Another tragedy occurred recently on 20 September 2018 that involved the passagers ferry MV Nyerere from Tanzania that caused the deaths of over 200 people.. Learn more about the cichlids of Lake Victoria. Study shows evolution does not always mean more diversification. , Evarcha culicivora is a species of jumping spider (family Salticidae) found only around Lake Victoria in Kenya and Uganda. However, considering the fact that the Nile river links to Lake Victoria.  Furthermore, Graham noted that the introduction of the European flax gill net of 5 inch mesh had undoubtedly caused a diminution in the number of ngege in those parts of the Kavirondo Gulf, the northern shore of the lake, the Sesse Islands and Smith's Sound which are conveniently situated close to markets. Hundreds of endemic species that evolved under the special conditions offered by the protection of Lake Victoria have been lost due to extinction, and several more are still threatened. About Lake Victoria Basin Commission: The East African Community established the Lake Victoria Basin Commission formerly known as the Lake Victoria Development Programme in 2001, as a mechanism for coordinating the various interventions on the Lake and its Basin; and serving as a centre for promotion of investments and information sharing among the various stakeholders. (2006). The subsequent decrease in the number of algae-eating fish allows the algae to grow at an alarming rate, thereby choking the lake. However, the most distal source of the Nile Basin, and therefore the ultimate source of the Nile, is more often considered to be one of the tributary rivers of the Kagera River (the exact tributary remains undetermined), and which originates in either Rwanda or Burundi. Public awareness exercises were also conducted. 1999.  The origin of the first Victoria introductions in the 1950s is not entirely clear and indisputable evidence is lacking. Lake Victoria is known to be 2nd largest fresh water lake, and is the source of the White Nile river. United Nations Environment Programme & Belgium. Lake Victoria (c.255 mi/410 km long and c.155 mi/250 As Lake Tanganyika is a border for four countries Zambia, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo- the success of the project will depend on how well these countries work together. The three countries bordering Lake Victoria – Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania – have agreed in principle to the idea of a tax on Nile perch exports, proceeds to be applied to various measures to benefit local communities and sustain the fishery. Lake Victoria water resources management challenges and prospects: a need for equitable and sustainable institutional and regulatory frameworks. The changes in oxygenation are considered consistent with measurements of higher algal biomass and productivity. As a by-product of this the oxygen levels in the deeper layer of water are being depleted. , Many mammal species live in the region of Lake Victoria, and some of these are closely associated with the lake itself and the nearby wetlands. Lake Victoria and climate change Featuring room service, this property also provides guests with a playground. (2008). , Lake Victoria and its wetlands has a large population of Nile crocodiles, as well as African helmeted turtles, variable mud turtles, and Williams' mud turtle. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Located on the western frontier of Kenya, the lake is only a one-hour flight from Nairobi to Kisumu and a 40-minute flight from Maasai Mara, making it a convenient option for your safari plans with AfricanMecca. The vegetated shores of Lake Victoria near the Speke Resort in Munyonyo, Kampala, Uganda. , Starting in the 1950s, several species have been introduced to Lake Victoria where they have become invasive and a prime reason for the extinction of many endemic haplochromine cichlids. Due to the presence of the Nile perch, the natural balance of the lake's ecosystem has been disrupted. As well as being due to the introduction of Nile Perch, the extinction of cichlids in the genus Haplochromis has also been blamed on the lake's eutrophication. Lake Victoria is located in east central Africa along the equator. Sediment and suspended solids are filtered out using sand, which acts like a sieve. Interesting Facts about Lake Victoria 6: the division of Lake Victoria. Today, the lake and its resources fuel the economies of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. Being relatively shallow for its size, with a maximum depth of 84 meters (276 feet) and a mean depth of 40 meters (131 feet), Lake Victoria ranks as the seventh largest freshwater lake by volume , containing 2,750 cubic kilometers (2.2 million acre-feet) of water . Heavy winds and rains along with their subsequent waves may have also damaged the plants during this same time frame.  More recently, measures have been used such as the introduction of natural insect predators, including two different water hyacinth weevils and large harvesting and chopping boats, which seem to be much more effective in eliminating the water hyacinth. One of the Scorched by climate change and drained by industrial farms, the country’s most important river system  The Williams' mud turtle is restricted to Lake Victoria and other lakes, rivers, and swamps in the upper Nile basin. Darwall (2018).  Disregarding the haplochromines, the only native Victoria cichlids are two critically endangered tilapia, the Singida tilapia or ngege (Oreochromis esculentus) and Victoria tilapia (O. Lake Victoria covers land in all of the following countries EXCEPT Get the answers you need, now!  UGFD officials argued that Nile perch must have spread to Lake Victoria by themselves by passing through the Owen Falls Dam when shut down for maintenance, but this is considered highly unlikely by many scientists.  The zooplanktivores have been least affected and in the late 1990s had reached densities similar to, or above, the densities before the drastic declines, although consisting of fewer species and often switching their diet towards macroinvertebrates.  Their extraordinary diversity and speed of evolution have been the subjects for many scientists studying the forces that drive the richness of life everywhere. , Since the 1900s, Lake Victoria ferries have been an important means of transport between Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya.  Among the introductions are several tilapias: redbreast (Coptodon rendalli), redbelly (C. zillii), Nile (Oreochromis niloticus) and blue-spotted tilapias (O. Understandably so, Lake Victoria Africa attracts visitors, be they locals who come to fish the waters, or tourists hoping to enjoy the beautiful landscape. Book Lake Victoria Country Home, Entebbe on Tripadvisor: See traveler reviews, 5 candid photos, and great deals for Lake Victoria Country Home at Tripadvisor.  The piscivorous (affected by both predation and competition from Nile perch), molluscivorous and insectivorous haplochromines were particularly hard hit with many extinctions. It is an irregular quadrilateral in shape, and its shores, save on the west, are deeply indented. With a surface area of approximately 59,947 km2 (23,146 sq mi), Lake Victoria is Africa's largest lake by area, the world's largest tropical lake, and the world's second-largest fresh water lake by surface area after Lake Superior in North America.  The first introduction of Nile perch to the region, done by the Uganda Game and Fisheries Department (then part of the colonial government) and local African fish guards, happened upstream of Murchison Falls directly after the completion of the Owen Falls Dam in 1954.  Average evaporation on the lake is between 2.0 and 2.2 metres (6.6 and 7.2 ft) per year, almost double the precipitation of riparian areas. "The Rise and Fall of Water Hyacinth in Lake Victoria and the Kagera River Basin, 1989-2001". The Kagera River, the largest and most important of the lake affluents, enters the western side of Lake Victoria just north of latitude 1° S. The only other river of note entering from the west is the Katonga, north of Kagera. leucostictus). Below you can see the member countries. Nevertheless, others of these features are not consistent within the lakes and have not been adequately explained.…. The water hyacinth has become a major invasive plant species in Lake Victoria. I can only ask if Lake Victoria has any geopolitical importances to these Nile countries? Lake Victoria is drained solely by the Nile River near Jinja, Uganda, on the lake's northern shore. It is Africa's largest lake, and the second largest fresh water lake in the world. People rely on it for food, water, and many other things. With an area of 69,484 km², it is about as big as Ireland.  By itself, this vegetative matter decays slowly. Only North America's Lake Superior is larger. 1998. The uppermost section of the Nile is generally known as the Victoria Nile until it reaches Lake Albert. Cumberlidge, N. (2009). Chapter 27, pp. Lake Victoria, the second largest lake in the world and one of the sources of the Nile River, is one of the most important trans-boundary natural resource in Africa. Surviving from the treasure of Chief Rumanika of…, In Central Africa, Lakes Victoria, Albert, Tanganyika, and Nyasa exhibit substantial long-term features, some of which are consistent, suggesting that a common climatological factor is responsible. ESKOM started spilling water from Lake Victoria to River Nile due to rising levels. With a surface area of just under 70 000 km², Lake Victoria not only dominates this part of East Africa but ranks as the second largest freshwater lake in the world. LAKE VICTORIA, February 29, 2016 – When an English explorer stumbled upon Lake Victoria in the middle of the 19 th century, the lake’s 38,000 mile-long shoreline was pristine - broken by small, shallow bays, inlets and wetlands. On the other hand, the largest area of the lake is taken by Tanzania with 49 percent. 2nd edition. 1. Coinciding anti-racist protests sweeping the world, the clamor is growing in Africa to rename Lake Victoria which lies in Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya. Travelling between these countries via the lake is, sadly, a luxury of the past.  This deep lake may have functioned as an "evolutionary reservoir" for this haplochromine group in periods where other shallower lakes in the region dried out, as happened to Lake Victoria about 15,000 years ago. Lake Victoria is the second largest lake in the world with a surface area of 68.000 Sq. Believing he had found the source of the Nile on seeing this "vast expanse of open water" for the first time, Speke named the lake after Queen Victoria. It’s shared by the three east African countries of Tanzania, Uganda, and Kenya. Het Victoriameer (ook wel Victoria Nyanza) is het grootste meer van Afrika en het op een na grootste zoetwatermeer op aarde. The main ports on the lake are Kisumu, Mwanza, Bukoba, Entebbe, Port Bell, and Jinja. A narrow channel leads into the Kavirondo Gulf, which has an average width of 16 miles (25 km) and extends for 40 miles (64 km) eastward to Kisumu, Kenya. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Lake-Victoria, University of Texas, Dallas - Lake Victoria, UN-Water Activity Information System - Lake Victoria, Victoria, Lake - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Lake Victoria - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). In 1966, train ferry services between Kenya and Tanzania were established with the introduction of MV Uhuru and MV Umoja. Conversely, genetic studies indicate that some morphologically distinctive populations, traditionally regarded as separate species, may only be variants of single species. Uganda has 45 percent of Lake Victoria, while Kenya earns only 6 percent. Njoka. , Four species of freshwater crabs are known from Lake Victoria: Potamonautes niloticus is widespread in the lake and P. emini has been recorded from the vicinity of Bukoba in Tanzania, but both are also found elsewhere in Africa.  These changes have arisen for multiple reasons: successive burning within its basin, soot and ash from which has been deposited over the lake's wide area; from increased nutrient inflows via rivers, and from increased pollution associated with settlement along its shores. The ferry MV Bukoba sank in the lake on 21 May 1996 with a loss of between 800 and 1,000 lives, making it one of Africa's worst maritime disasters. The shoreline consists of numerous sheltered bays surrounded by papyrus swamps, gulfs and forests at some places. Found on the western side of Africa's Great Rift Valley, Lake Victoria borders the countries of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. According to a CNN report, a mixture of lethal weather, poor communication and lack of resources are the three biggest cause of the high fatalities per square kilometre at the freshwater lake.. There are islands with amazing wildlife on the lake, beautiful landscapes around the lake and there are numerous accommodations where you stay and enjoy the scenery and cool breeze from the fresh water lake. "Freshwater Crabs and Shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) of the Nile Basin". 2. Lake Victoria’s fish. Lake Victoria. Ochiel, G.S., A.M. Mailu, W. Gitonga and S.W. , Other factors which may have contributed to the decline of the water hyacinth in Lake Victoria include varying weather patterns, such as El Niño during the last few months of 1997 and first six months of 1998 bringing with it higher levels of water in the lake and thus dislodging the plants. Until 1963, the fastest and newest ferry, MV Victoria, was designated a Royal Mail Ship. This allowed it to spread to Lake Kyoga where additional Nile perch were released in 1955, but not Victoria itself. (1929.) The Lake Victoria basin, while generally rural, has many major centres of population. Despite is massive size (About the same size as Ireland), it is massively shallow and its deepest point is only 100 meters. Local fisheries once depended on catching the lungfish, tilapia, carp and catfish that comprise the local diet. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Their loss is devastating for the lake, the fields of ecology, genetics and evolution biology, and more evidently, for the local fisheries. The first recorded information about Lake Victoria comes from Arab traders plying the inland routes in search of gold, ivory, other precious commodities, and slaves. Sitting in a fertile basin, the area is predictably heavily cultivated and densely populated, and given that much of its shoreline is marshy and infested with bilharzia, swimming is not an option. Njoka. Among the freshwater lakes of the world, it is exceeded in size only by Lake Superior in North America. Animal flesh decays considerably faster, however, so the fertility of the lake is dependent on the rate at which these nutrients can be taken up by fish and other organisms. A standard for mimicking the old rate of outflow called the "agreed curve" was established, setting the maximum flow rate at 300 to 1,700 cubic metres per second (392–2,224 cu yd/sec) depending on the lake's water level.  These warnings primarily concerned the native tilapia O. esculentus, as the smaller haplochromine cichlids (despite playing an important role in local fisheries) were regarded as "trash fish" by the colonial government. Lake Victoria is the most important freshwater storage reservoir in East Africa, with about 40 million people depending on its resources. Its coastline exceeds 2,000 miles (3,220 km). The Origins of the Nile Perch in Lake Victoria.  Two of the snail genera, Biomphalaria and Bulinus, are intermediate hosts of the parasite bilharzia (schistosomiasis). Understandably so, Lake Victoria Africa attracts visitors, be they locals who come to fish the waters, or tourists hoping to enjoy the beautiful landscape.  This expedition was financially sponsored by the Royal Geographic Society. ", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T60318A47182908.en. A very public quarrel ensued, which not only sparked a great deal of intense debate within the scientific community of the day, but also much interest by other explorers keen to either confirm or refute Speke's discovery.. The fertility of tropical waters depends on the rate at which nutrients can be brought into solution. Lake Tanganyika.  Some species have survived in nearby small satellite lakes, have survived in refugias among rocks or papyrus sedges (protecting them from the Nile perch), or have adapted to the human-induced changes in the lake itself. Lake Victoria is the source of the Nile. Lake Victoria is known to be 2nd largest fresh water lake, and is the source of the White Nile river. life for the people living within the Lake Victoria Basin which is in line with the Bank’s focus areas (Hi5s). Located in Entebbe and with Victoria Mall Entebbe reachable within 2.5 miles, Lake Victoria Country Home has express check-in and check-out, non-smoking rooms, a garden, free WiFi and a bar. , As early as the 1920s, it was proposed to introduce a large pelagic predator such as the Nile perch to improve the fisheries in the lake. Formerly known to the Arabs as Ukerewe, the lake was named by Speke in honour of Queen Victoria of England. Lake Victoria or Victoria Nyanza (also known as Ukerewe and Nnalubaale) is a lake in Africa.It is bordered and governed by the countries of Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya.The lake is in the western part of Africa's Great Rift Valley.. Lake Victoria is 68,800 square kilometres (26,560 mi²) in size. In 1927-1928 Michael Graham conducted the first ever systematic Fisheries Survey of Lake Victoria. The lake includes many species of fish that inhabit nowhere else, especially cichlids. tvlu5044 07.12.2018 History Secondary School +5 pts. Lake Victoria. Log in. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to counteract against the rapidly deteriorating water quality in the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB). Km. Lake Victoria On World Map It is that time of the month when we briefly take our gaze off Covid-19 deaths and infections and look at who is winning or losing from the pandemic and other goings-on shaking our world.  Its catchment area covers 169,858 km2 (65,583 sq mi). Lake Victoria is a huge lake in Eastern Africa - it's so big that it stretches over parts of three different countries.  The repository contains shoreline, bathymetry, pollution, temperature, wind vector, and other important data for both the lake and the wider Basin. Extensive fish kills, Nile perch, loss of habitat and overfishing have caused many fisheries to collapse and many protein sources to be unavailable at the market for local consumption. Without oxygen, any aerobic life (such as fish) cannot exist in the deeper parts of the lake, forcing all life to exist within a narrow range of depth. Lake Victoria is a 139-hectare (340-acre) shallow saline lake on the Bellarine Peninsula, Victoria in Australia, close to the township of Point Lonsdale and part of the Lonsdale Lakes Nature Reserve administered by Parks Victoria. Jäger, J., Bohunovsky, L., Radosh, L., & Sustainability Project. It is densely populated. And that is why we are interested in how much is being abstracted by those countries” Tindimugaya explained. Nevertheless, the natives continued to dominate fisheries until the 1970s where their decline meant that there was a strong shift towards the non-native Nile tilapia (now 7 percent of catches), non-native Nile perch (60 percent) and the native Lake Victoria sardine (30 percent). Lake Victoria has more than 200 species of fish, of which the Tilapia is the most economically important. Log in. its a huge lake it is covering 3 countries Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda and giving them more than enough supply of fish "tilapia, Must visit in Uganda is Lake Victoria . The Kagera River, which flows into Lake Victoria near the Tanzanian town of Bukoba, is the longest feeder river for Lake Victoria, although sources do not agree on which is the longest tributary of the Kagera, and hence the most distant source of the Nile itself.. The lake is shared by three riparian states : Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania with Ugandas' part constituting 30.720 Sq. The lake is located close to the equator on the eastern side of Africa, with most of the lake … The Kagera River is the largest river flowing into this lake, with its mouth on the lake's western shore.  Initially the population of the Nile perch was relatively low, but a drastic increase happened, peaking in the 1980s, followed by a decline starting in the 1990s.. Lake Victoria (at 68 000 km 2, Africa’s largest lake, the world’s largest tropical lake and the world’s second largest freshwater lake is a shared lake with basin countries of … Uganda Game and Fisheries Department (UGFD) officials denied that they were involved, but circumstantial evidence suggests otherwise and local Africans employed by UGFD have said that they introduced the species in 1954–55 under the directive of senior officials.  Scientists argued that further introduction should wait until research showed the effect of the introduction in Kyoga, but by the late 1950s, Nile perch began being caught in Lake Victoria. The plants may not have been destroyed, instead merely moved to another location. , The non-cichlid native fish include African tetras (Brycinus), cyprinids (Enteromius, Garra, Labeo, Labeobarbus, Rastrineobola and Xenobarbus), airbreathing catfish (Clariallabes, Clarias and Xenoclarias), bagrid catfish (Bagrus), loach catfish (Amphilius and Zaireichthys), silver butter catfish (Schilbe intermedius), Synodontis squeaker catfish, Nothobranchius killifish, poeciliids (Aplocheilichthys and Micropanchax), the spiny eel Mastacembelus frenatus, elephantfish (Gnathonemus, Hippopotamyrus, Marcusenius, Mormyrus, Petrocephalus, and Pollimyrus), the climbing gourami Ctenopoma muriei and marbled lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus).  Greater growth was observed in the northern part of the lake, in relatively protected areas, which may be linked to current and weather patterns and could also be due to the climate and water conditions, which are more suitable to the plants growth (as there are large urban areas to the north end of the lake, in Uganda). The release of large amounts of untreated wastewater (sewage) and agricultural and industrial runoff directly into Lake Victoria over the past 30 years has greatly increased the nutrient levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in the lake "triggering massive growth of exotic water hyacinth, which colonised the lake in the late 1990s".  A 2016 project digitized ten-thousand points and created the first true bathymetric map of the lake. LAKE VICTORIA, February 29, 2016 – When an English explorer stumbled upon Lake Victoria in the middle of the 19 th century, the lake’s 38,000 mile-long shoreline was pristine - broken by small, shallow bays, inlets and wetlands. , The lake is considered a shallow lake considering its large geographic area with a maximum depth of approximately 80 metres (260 ft) and an average depth of 40 metres (130 ft). , Growth of the water hyacinth in Lake Victoria has been tracked since 1993, reaching its maxima biomass in 1997 and then declining again by the end of 2001. Overall, the timing of the decline could be linked to all of these factors and perhaps together, in combination, they were more effective than any one deterrent would have been by itself.  The last were first scientifically described in 2017 and very little is known about them: P. entebbe is only known from near Entebbe (the only known specimen was collected in 1955 and it is unknown if it was in or near the lake) and P. busungwe only at Busungwe Island in the northwestern part of the lake. It borders the countries of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. Lake Victoria covers an approximate 68,800 km squared.  During its geological history, Lake Victoria went through changes ranging from its present shallow depression, through to what may have been a series of much smaller lakes.  It is likely that undescribed species of snails remain. The outflow from Lake Victoria into the NILE is in the country of UGANDA. , Lake Victoria is home to 28 species of freshwater snails (e.g., Bellamya, Biomphalaria, Bulinus, Cleopatra, Gabbiella, and Melanoides), including 12 endemic species/subspecies. With ten countries in the Nile and P M. Kareiva, editors (1998). Oxygen concentrations in hypolimnetic waters (i.e. Updates? "Lake Victoria Fish Stocks and the Effects of Water Hyacinth". With a surface area of 69,485 square kilometers, Lake Victoria is Africa’s largest lake, and the world’s largest tropical lake, according to Diversity Inland Waters (DIW). Although there are records of Arab traders as far back as the 1160s using the lake to search for ivory, gold, and slaves, as well as other precious items. Lake Victoria receives 80 percent of its water from direct rainfall. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Ugandan volunteers passing out life jackets in an effort to decrease the number of drownings in Lake Victoria. [ 68 ], lake Victoria borders the countries will lead you to a complete of! 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